Hygienic management status of food packaging mater

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With the improvement of living standards, people pay more and more attention to food safety and health issues, and food packaging materials, as an important means to ensure food safety and health, have also received more and more attention. According to the random inspection results of tableware and food packaging materials by China's food safety management institutions, there are problems that cannot be ignored in the health and safety of food packaging materials in China [1]. Because food packaging materials are closely related to health and safety, and there are many potential safety hazards, the safety evaluation and management research of food packaging materials is particularly important

although countries around the world have different definitions of food packaging materials, they all believe that food packaging materials may migrate to food, which will bring potential harm to the health of consumers. Therefore, all countries in the world have strict regulations on food packaging materials

1 status of hygienic management of food packaging materials in some countries

1.1 the center for food safety and nutrition applications of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is responsible for the hygienic management of food packaging materials, and makes corresponding explanations and regulations on the definition of food packaging materials and their hygienic management measures

1.1.1 definition of food packaging materials

according to FDA's interpretation, food packaging materials refer to substances that come into contact with food during production, processing and transportation, as well as containers that contain food, and these substances themselves are not used to produce any effect in food [2]. Food packaging materials appear in food, which may be due to the migration of these substances to food or accidental extraction. Therefore, food packaging materials are also known as indirect food additives [3]. According to its use, the probability of food packaging materials contacting food is very different: some have long-term contact with food, such as the final packaging of food; Some are used as contact media, such as containers for temporary food in food processing plants; Some are short-term and incidental, such as the conveyor belt transporting substances in food processing plants

1.1.2 hygienic management of food packaging materials

according to the provisions of section 409 (H) (6) of the food, drugs and Cosmetics Act (FFDCA), a substance that is used to contact food needs to provide FDA with a food contact notice [4]. The notification should include sufficient scientific data to prove that the use of the notified substance is safe. The specific contents are carried out according to the contents of FDA form 3480, mainly including the evaluation data of physical chemistry, toxicology and environmental safety [4]

1.2 EU

the European food safety agency is responsible for the health management of food packaging materials, and its definition and management regulations on food packaging materials are as follows [5]

1.2.1 definition of food packaging materials

food packaging materials are materials or articles in contact with food, including packaging materials, tableware, utensils, food processing instruments, containers, etc., and also include substances or materials in contact with water consumed by human beings, but do not include public or private water supply equipment. In addition, it also includes active and intelligent food packaging materials. Active food packaging materials refer to materials that come into contact with food in order to extend the shelf life of food or maintain and increase the state of packaged food. They are specially designed to be released or absorbed into food or its surrounding environment [6]. Active food packaging materials have been used in the markets of the United States, Japan and Australia

1.2.2 hygienic management of food packaging materials

EU legislation on food packaging materials is based on the following two goals: protecting consumer health and preventing trade barriers. EU law stipulates that food packaging materials should be safe, and the content of ingredients transferred to food should be within the range acceptable to humans. In order to protect the health of consumers and avoid polluting food raw materials, the EU has set two types of migration limits for plastic materials for food packaging: ① overall migration limit (OML), which is applicable to all substances that may be transferred from food packaging materials to food, and 60mg of this substance is allowed per kilogram of food raw materials or similar substances. ② Specific migration limit (SML), which is applicable to individual substances and is based on toxicological evaluation. This standard is usually set according to the allowable daily intake (ADI) or tolerable daily intake (TDI) of the Scientific Committee on food. The standard of SML refers to the maximum limit of 1kg of food containing test substances packed in plastic every day in the life of a person who weighs 60kg

according to the different management scope, the EU has formulated three types of rules: ① general management rules for food packaging materials. So far, there are 17 types of food packaging materials. ② Management rules for various food packaging materials. So far, there are three standards for food packaging materials, namely, ceramics, recycled cellulose film and plastics. ③ Rules for the management of raw materials for the production of food packaging materials. So far, there are three standards, namely, vinyl chloride monomer in plastics, nitrosamine in rubber pacifiers and teats, and bisphenol A, bisphenol F diglycidyl ether and phenolic varnish glycerol ether in plastics, surface coatings and adhesives

1.3 Canada

the Canadian Chemical Safety Agency is responsible for the formulation of policies and standards for chemicals in food, risk assessment, research and evaluation activities, in order to ensure that the content of chemicals in food will not cause harm to human health

1.3.1 definition of food packaging materials

according to the different data required to be submitted, food packaging materials are divided into food packaging materials in the form of finalized products and finished products and food packaging materials in the form of special ingredients or single additives. The former, such as containers and plastic resins, and the latter, such as antioxidants and UV absorbers [7]

1 United States 3.2 management of food packaging materials

the management objects are five kinds of chemicals, namely food additives, food packaging materials and accidental additives, food allergens, food pollutants and natural toxins [8]. Food packaging materials are regulated in accordance with Canadian food and drug regulations, chapter B, Part 23, section 001. The people who stipulate the safety of food packaging materials are food sellers (producers, distributors, etc.). Applicants can voluntarily send food packaging materials to the food board for chemical safety evaluation before entering the market; For food packaging materials that must be approved by the food supervision agency of Canada, the applicant must send the relevant materials to the collaborative flame retardant system supervision agency of Canada, which is the most frequently used food nitrogen/phosphorus, and can only be listed after obtaining approval. Food packaging materials outside the jurisdiction of the food supervision agency of Canada do not need to be approved by the government

1.4 other countries and regions

1.4.1 New Zealand P Australia

food standards are formulated by the Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ). Australia and New Zealand have standards for food packaging materials. The management of food packaging materials in Australia is divided into two categories: mandatory provisions and non mandatory provisions. Mandatory provisions are divided into national food law and FSANZ law. Non mandatory provisions refer to Australian standards

fsanz's regulations on food packaging materials include those on food packaging materials and processing aids [9]

1.4.2 Japan

in the Japanese food hygiene law, food packaging materials are not food additives. Prior approval is not required for food packaging materials before they are put on the market. However, this does not mean that Japan has no management measures for food packaging materials. The food hygiene law authorizes the Ministry of health, labor and welfare to formulate specifications (also known as standards) for containers, packaging materials and raw materials used in the production of containers and packaging materials. There are three different types of specifications for food containers and packaging materials [10], which are: ① specifications applicable to all containers and packaging materials, mainly metal standards

② standards for special materials, such as metal cans, glass P porcelain P enamel, and rubber products. At the same time, there is also a general specification for synthetic polymers, and 13 specifications for special resins because there is no specific scale for manual operation. This specification does not mean that these materials can be used to produce food packaging materials, but requires that these materials must be tested in the last test to ensure that they meet the requirements. The last test included the limit of heavy metals and the total nonvolatile extract under special extraction conditions. For synthetic polymers, it also includes the content of volatile substances and the content of residual monomers. ③ Specific specifications for packaging materials applicable to specific functions, such as specifications for food packaging materials used for pasteurization. These specifications usually include performance tests (such as strength tests) to prove that food packaging materials can be used in the declared function

in Japan, in addition to the norms that must be observed by the law, various business organizations have also established many voluntary standards. For example, the Japanese olefin and styrene plastic Hygiene Association has developed voluntary standards for food packaging materials. Although these standards are voluntary in the legal sense, the standards for plastic materials used to produce food packaging materials formulated by the olefin and styrene plastic Hygiene Association (JHOSPA) have been widely recognized in Japan

2 safety evaluation of food packaging materials in the United States and the European Union

2.1 main contents of chemical safety evaluation in the United States

main contents of chemical safety evaluation include: ① characteristics of substances: including chemical name, common name and P or business name, chemical classification number, chemical composition, physical and chemical characteristics and analysis methods. ② Use conditions: including maximum use temperature, food to be contacted, single or repeated use, contact time, etc. ③ Technical effect to be played: the technical effect refers to the technical effect on food packaging materials, not on food. For example, antioxidants prevent the degradation of a particular polymer. At the same time, it is also necessary to provide data to prove the minimum amount of use that has the expected effect. ④ Migration Experiment and analysis method. ⑤ Exposure assessment

2.1.2 main contents of toxicological safety evaluation minimum test contents

fda recommends that the evaluation of food packaging materials should be based on the cumulative estimated daily intake (CEDI), which is the same as the principle that the exposure risk increases with the increase of the amount of exposure agent. FDA suggests that the notifier should at least provide the following research data and other information (the content of each component if possible):

(1) the exposure dose in the diet ≤ 015ppb (115 μ In general, GPD) if the dose of a single exposure to food packaging materials or its components is less than 015ppb, safety evaluation is not required. Available information on potential carcinogenicity should be discussed in a comprehensive toxicological description (e.g., carcinogenicity studies, genotoxicity studies, or information on similarities with known carcinogens or mutagens). For the carcinogenic ingredients in food packaging materials, it should include the assessment of the potential cancer risk of human beings caused by the use of food packaging materials

(2) cumulative exposure dose 015ppb (115 μ GPD), but ≤ 50ppb (150 μ GPD)

genotoxicity experiments should be conducted to evaluate the potential carcinogenic risk of food packaging materials (or their components) with exposure doses between the two. The recommended genotoxicity experiments include: ① gene mutation experiment with bacteria; ② Mammalian cells were used for in vitro cytogenetic toxicity experiments,

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